These are some guidelines for issues we commonly encounter in TCQ. Please consult the APA Manual for complete information.

In-text citations

  • As noted by APA, when you include multiple citations for a single idea, list these citations in the same order as they appear in the references list.
  • Include page or paragraph numbers for material that is paraphrased or summarized as well as material that is directly quoted from a source (p. 171).
  • When citing personal communication, include the parenthetical reference immediately after the person's name. For example: "Dan Carver (personal communication, March 28, 1999), one of the original team members, reported that...." APA style dictates that personal communication should not be included in the references list, only cited in text (p. 179).
  • Ensure that all citations in your article have an entry in the references list, and make sure that all entries in the references list are cited in the article.
  • Follow APA guidelines on verb tense as much as possible. Thus, authors should use past to discuss another researcher’s work and to report their own results (as in the results section of a typical IMRAD paper). This means if you are citing a previous study, you would refer to it as follows: "Brown and Smith (2005) reported that...."

References List

  • Begin the references list on a new page after the last page of the article. References should be listed in alphabetical order. The word "References" should be centered on the first line of the page.
  • Discontinued URLs: APA style does not have a recommendation for a discontinued URL. If you cannot eliminate the citation, include a note after the URL as follows:

    CNN. (2006). Hurricane Katrina safe list. Retrieved April DD, 2006, from [discontinued URL]

  • Follow this style for citations of other articles in same issue:

    Text: (Smith, this issue)
    References: No reference entry needed

  • Per APA style for electronic sources, cite the paragraph using “para.” (pp. 171–172, 6.05).
  • Do not divide the References section into separate categories for different publication types; there should be one References list, and all cited texts should appear in alphabetical order.
  • Per APA style, include a digital object identifier (DOI) in citaitons. "A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet" (p. 189). The DOI will beginw ith a "10," so the citation's reference to the DOI must begin with a "10." also. When no DOI is available, provide the journal's, book's, or report publisher's home page URL. If the article or book you are citing does not provide its DOI, visit, a resource that will help you locate a source's DOI.
  • When citing a republished article or book chapter, add a parenthetical insert starting with "Reprinted from" and then provide the original publication information. For the in-text citation, use both dates: (Miller, 1979/2004). Format the reference entry as follows:

    Miller, C. R. (2004a). A humanistic rationale for technical writing. In J. M. Dubinsky (Ed.), Teaching technical communication: Critical issues for the classroom (pp. 15–23). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. (Reprinted from College English,40, 1979, 610–617)

  • Follow the APA Manual guidelines for citing references with multiple authors (p. 177). For 1–2 authors, list both authors' last names in each reference. For 3–5 authors, list all references in the first citation in text (parenthetical or textual) and use the first author, et al., and the year for subsequent textual and parenthetical citations in text. For 6 or more authors, cite the resources as first author, et al., and the year for each mention. 
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